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Travel Vaccines
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Cholera is an acute bacterial illness which can cause severe diarrhoea. It can be contracted by drinking contaminated water; Ingesting food handled by people infected with cholera or ingesting food (especially shellfish) which has been in unclean water.
Click on the links below to learn more.

Hepatitis A is a highly infectious viral disease caused by the Hepatitis A virus. The virus is usually transmitted through food or water contaminated by human faeces or by direct contact with an infectious person. Hepatitis A occurs in travellers who have recently visited countries where the disease is common.

Symptoms may include: fever, loss of appetite, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin), malaise and nausea. Vaccination is recommended if visiting areas where there is poor hygiene and sanitation.

Click on the link below for more information:
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/hepatitis-a

Hepatitis B is an acute viral infection of the liver which spreads by direct contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person. It can also spread from mother to baby. Symptoms more commonly occur in adults than children and may include: jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) loss of appetite, fever and abdominal pain.

Click on the link below for more information

https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/hepatitis-b

Twinrix is a vaccine that provides active immunity against both the hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses. To get the best protection before your travel, you must take 2 doses of Twinrix before you leave.

If you are travelling in less than 21 days, you should get separate hepatitis A and B vaccines to give you the best protection for your trip.

Diphtheria: is a highly infectious bacterial infection which can be fatal. Diphtheria is typically spread by coughing and sneezing, close contact with infected people or contaminated clothes and bedding. Symptoms include sore throat, difficulty and/or pain on swallowing, husky voice, fever, cough, headache and, breathing difficulties.

Click on the link below for more information.
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/diphtheria

Tetanus: is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by a toxin produced by bacteria called Clostridium tetani. Tetanus spores are found in soil. The disease comes in contact with the body when the soil containing these spores contaminates any cuts or wound on the body. Tetanus is not spread by person to person contact. Tetanus is found worldwide, but is more common in resource-poor countries with low vaccine coverage.

Click on the link below for more information.
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/tetanus

Polio: is a potentially paralysing, vaccine preventable, viral infection. The virus is transmitted through food or water contaminated by infected human faeces or by direct contact with an infectious person.
Those at increased risk include travellers visiting friends and relatives, those in direct contact with an infected person, long-stay travellers, and those visiting areas of poor sanitation. Symptoms for polio may range from a mild illness with fever, to symptoms of meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain) or paralysis.

Click on the link below for more information.
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/poliomyelitis

JE is a viral infection of the brain transmitted to humans by mosquitoes in parts of Asia. The mosquitoes that transmit JE are found in rural areas, where rice cultivation and pig farming are common. Symptoms for humans affected by JE include fever, headache and confusion.

In symptomatic cases requiring hospitalisation, death rates are high and neurological complications are common. The risk of acquiring JE can be reduced by insect bite avoidance.

Click on the link below for more information
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/japanese-encephalitis

In UK, MMR vaccine is currently given as part of the national childhood schedule.

Measles
Measles is a highly infectious viral disease. It can lead to life threatening complications. Measles is transmitted by sneezing, coughing or direct contact with respiratory secretions. Symptoms for measles can initially include fever, runny nose, conjunctivitis and cough with rash appearing a few days later, starting from the head and spreading to the trunk and limbs over three to four days.

For more information, please click on the link below:
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/measles

Mumps
Mumps is caused by a virus called paramyxo virus. It is transmitted by infected saliva. Human urine also contains virus particles. The saliva is infectious for approximately six days prior to the swelling of the glands, but the actual period of infectivity is from the day or two before the onset of the swelling, until very shortly after it begins.

For more information, please click on the link below:
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/mumps

Rubella
Rubella (German measles) is a mild disease characterised by a rash with mild illness involving a low-grade fever, malaise, mild conjunctivitis and rash, mostly seen behind the ears which then transits on the face and neck. It affects children and adolescents worldwide and can also affect young adults.

For more information, please click on the link below:
https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/rubella

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. It is highly contagious and can sometimes be fatal. It spreads through contaminated foods and water. Typhoid bacteria are mainly found in faeces, and the infection is particularly common in regions with poor sanitation. The typhoid vaccine is very effective at preventing the illness and is available free on NHS, please check with your GP surgery.

Symptoms of typhoid include fever, high temperature, headaches, nausea, muscle pain, digestion problems such as constipation or diarrhoea, tiredness and confusion. Some patients also experience a rash. If left untreated, typhoid can be lethal. The infection is also known to cause physical as well as mental disabilities if it is not treated or treated with delay.
For more information click the link below:

https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/typhoid

Yellow fever (YF) is a vaccine preventable viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. Yellow fever (YF) virus can cause an illness that results in jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) and bleeding, with severe damage to the major organs.

The most important step in preventing yellow fever is a yellow fever vaccination prior to travel. You need to arrange your vaccine for a date at least ten days before you travel. Once you have received the vaccine, you are protected for life. Certain countries require a yellow fever certificate, which is called the International Certificate and this certificate becomes only becomes valid 10 days after injection. For more information click the link below:

https://www.fitfortravel.nhs.uk/advice/disease-prevention-advice/yellow-fever